The present need for the miniaturization of electronic and optoelectronic components has motivated the search for new nanoscale functional materials. In this context, semiconductor nanowires are intensively studied as promising building blocks of future integrated photonic and electronic platforms. They are also unique systems to study fundamental physical phenomena at the nanoscale. The nanowires are nano-objects with a high aspect ratio having a diameter spanning from several nanometers to several hundreds of nanometers and a length that can be tuned from hundreds of nanometers up to hundreds of microns. These subwavelength structures exhibit unique optical and electrical properties stemming from their anisotropic geometry, high surface-to-volume ratio, and carrier confinement. The applications of semiconductor nanowires cover the transistors, sensors, power elements as well as optoelectronic components (light emitting diodes, photodetectors, solar cells, etc.).
In this talk, we will discuss the optical properties of nitride axial and radial nanowire heterostructures in terms of emission energy, polarization and correlation with the nanowire structure. We will then show the potential of these nanostructures for device applications on the example of light emitting diodes and photodetectors.